Language:      
IV.3.1.6. PROPOLIS

 

In the propolis have been identified over 149 component substances (Mărghitaş LA, 2005). Its basic components are resins and balsams, at a rate of 50-55% (Andrițoiu, 2005; Mărghitaş, 2005), 30% wax, 15% etheric and pollen 5% (Bankov et al., 1989; Andrițoiu, 2006).

Unsaturated aromatic acids: caffeic acid and ferulic acid (acid 4-oxy-3-methoxy). This component comes into the propolis especially from the resin of pine and spruce. Five other substances have been identified so far in both the propolis and in poplar buds: chrysin, tectochrysin, galangin, isalpinin and pinocembrin (Păunescu et al, 1988; Chi et al., 1996). Existing flavonoids in the propolis: flavones, flavonols and flavonone, phenolic compounds and aromatic (Bankov et al., 2002).

Flavone: 14 flavones were identified, gathered in the following groups: flavones, four in number, among which the most important are the chrysin and tectochrysin; flavonols, six in number, of which the most important are considered the galangin, isalpinin, ramnocitrin and kaempferol; flavonone , four in number, of which are pinocembrin, quercetin and pinostrobin. (Di Maggio et al., 1961, Bogdanov et al., 2003).

Minerals are in the amount of 0.5-2%. Thus, in the dry alcoholic extract were revealed 27 minerals: aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), silicon (Si), iron (Fe), manganese ( Mn), barium (Ba), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), tin (Sn), silver (Ag), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), molybdenum ( Mo) (Mărghitaş, 2005; Andrițoiu, 2002, 2005, Mateescu, 2005). Other component minerals of the propolis, cited in the literature are: sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) (industrial infested areas or infested by auto traffic), selenium (The) (Andrițoiu, 2005; Mateescu, 2005) and boron (B) (Mateescu, 2005; Andrițoiu and Andrițoiu, 2010).

Nitrogenous substances: in the amount o 2.1% equivalent of protein, in the hydrolyzate acid were detected18 amino acids, the essential being fully present (Mărghitaş, 2005). The amino acids, determined quantitatively in variable number from 16 to 24, have, as significant representatives, the piroglutamic acid, arginine and proline. Their origin in the propolis is placed both on the account of the pollen and of the bee saliva secretions (Branga et al., 1954; Mateescu, 2005).

Sugars: glucose, fructose, melesitose.

Vitamins: water soluble - B1, B2, B3, B5 and C, liposoluble - A and E (Mărghitaş, 2005; Andriţoiu, 2005, 2006).

Enzymes, particularly of the group of the anaerobic transhydrogenases (Marletto, 1983; Mărghitaş, 2005).

<< Back to Table Of Contents Continue reading >>
Copyright ©2010 - 2018 Apitherapy. Toate drepturile Rezervate. | Site realizat de servicii.IT