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IV.3.1.8. BEE VENOM

 

The bee venom is a product of bee secretion and it is used as the only effective weapon of defense against any aggressor. The venom is stored in a bag and removed when the bee stings: in such situations, the bee can secrete an amount of 0.3 mg of fluid venom.

Physical properties of the venom: it is colorless, is liquid when it is removed through the bee needle;  specific, bitter-acid taste; characteristic odor; it crystallizes quickly; soluble in water; insoluble in alcohol; heat resistat.

Chemical composition: the pH is 4.5 to 5.5; water - 6-7%; dry matter - 93-94%; ash - 3.5-4%; proteins - 65-75% as melittine, phospholipase , hyaluronidase; carbon - 46.36%; hydrogen - 7.56%; nitrogen -13.3%; peptides – like scypin, peptide MCDP, thertapin, apamin, procamin, other peptides; bioactive amines - histamine, dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin; sugars - glucose, fructose, nucleic acids; volatile acids - formic, hydrochloric, orthophosphoric; hormones; etheric oils; minerals - Ca: 0.26%, Mg: 0.49% P: 0.42%; various volatile substances. In the protein substances in the bee venom there are: 1) melittine 2) hyaluronidase 3) phospholipase A, 4) inactive fraction, representing 3%.

Administration: Caution should be taken when administering the bee venom, which means, as appropriate, inclusively the avoidance to be sting by the bees, which can result in the follwoing: 1) local effects: edema, erythema, the affected area becomes flushing; 2) systemic effects: may cause general rash, difficulty in breathing, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, syncope; 3) anaphylactic effects: the reactions are fast (in seconds) and are manifested by difficulty in breathing, mental confusion, vomiting, blood supply shock: it can lead to unconsciousness and death by respiratory and circulatory collapse.

A major component of the bee venom is the peptide MCDP (Mast Cell Degranulating Peptides), whose stability and standardization as medicine, including as administered doses, could have very important effects in the autoimmune diseases, especially in treating the polyarthritis: it is 100 times more effective than the hydrocortisone (Artemov, 1958; Andrițoiu, 2005, 2006; Mărghitaş, 2005; Mateescu, 2005; Andrițoiu and Andrițoiu, 2010 and so on).

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