The honey bee therapeutic products contain an impressive number of directly assimilable substances, used in the biosynthesis of the human body.

Also, a fact of great importance is that the honey bee therapeutic products contain not only all the organic and inorganic elements necessary for the human body homeostasis but also biomolecules which can be directly employed in the state they are given, without any processing.

The results obtained in the clinical practice entitle us to say that the honey bee therapeutic products whose main support are the bee products, are the most significant source of biomolecules biocompatible to the identity with the ones of the human body.

Table no. 1. Honey Bee Biomolecules inside Honey Bee Therapeutic Products produced by Apitherapy Medical Center (AMC) - Human Correspondences

In human body

In  honey bee products and honey bee therapeutic products

* Proteins of human body are made, usually, of 20 essential and nonessential amino-acids.

* All necessary amino acids in the human body, essential and non-essential, together with a large range of neproteinogene amino-acids, are found in the honey bee products; they contain, as biomolecules, proteins.

* Nucleic acids DNA and RNA are composed of four nucleotides each of them.

* Nucleic acids DNA and RNA of the honey bee products are ubiquitous in pollen, bee bread, apilarnil.

* Chemical elements in the earth's crust, needed by human body : H, O, C, N, P, S, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, B, Al, V, Mo , I, Si, Sn, Ni, Cr, Fe, Se.

* All these items are in pollen, IV.4.



Thank to the extremely wide range of substances they contain the honey bee products can compete with the best stocked pharmacy, but which they certainly will overcome. This statement is not an exaggeration. If only we discussed on their listing it would require more space and time than we can indulge in a work like the present one. If anyone would assume the task not only to list all substances in honey bee products, and also that to describe them scientifically, as well as to provide the medical effects of each one, it would be necessary an effort period of many years, completed in a treaty that would include a large number of volumes.

If facing the honey bee pharmacy and the pharmacochemical pharmacy each other, we have to do at least some clarifications. A huge number of substances produced by pharmaceutical chemistry, with exactly the same names in the treaties of pharmacology (to remember that we talk about substance, not about the trade name of the drug) may be found out in honey bee products. Here, however, there are at least two key differences. The synthetic drugs, some of which being absolutely necessary in extreme situations, are always accompanied by brochures that highlight the contraindications and side effects. There are no few cases where these side effects are not always known, they cause iatrogenic diseases - diseases caused by substances contained in the given medicinal product. This is a kind of perpetual motion therapy: the number of drugs taken for primary disease increases with the one given for iatrogenic diseases.

In the honey bee pharmacy - name where I include all therapeutic substances contained in the offer that makes the bee to mankind, there are only substances which give life and maintain life. They are gathered from nature and processed in the hive according to an unwritten science, following some combinations and selection adapted to perfection by millennia of survival to the needs of the bees colony. No substance is in addition, no substance is missing. Quantitatively, all substances are dosed so as to serve the beekeeping vigorous juveniles growth, nutrition and bees family health insurance and especially the fertility and multiplication. It is no less true, there are bee substances that, by inappropriate management can have side effects, such as those iatrogenic. Because this issue is of major importance in apitherapy, we will return on it at the rightful place.

No pharmacologist can equate a synthetic substance that structurally mimics, with the intention of identity, a substance in the human body and the same substance taken from bee products. The biocompatibility of the honey bee one with that synthesized by the human body, is always superior to the chemio-prepared substance. It is, among many others, to give just one example, the case of the hormones of substitution.

There are in honey bee products - and this is a fact of great importance, which should draw the attention of pharmacology - substances that can not be replicated in laboratories.

Beyond any doubt, the honey bee products make human reach many substances with a completely defined structure, of which many can be utilized by the body without its own processing. At the same time, they also provide substances which, by its own metabolism, the human body can synthesize what is needed. And actually crucial, the bee offers a huge number of biomolecules biocompatible to the human identity, but which the pharmacochemistry will never succeed to reproduce.

No food, no medicine can replace the value and complexity of the biochemical offer of the bee which includes:

- All essential and non-essential amino-acids of the  structure of all proteins - as holoproteins and heteroproteins MEC - as well as biomolecules and holoproteins necessary for the cellular biosynthese, and also for the intracellular biosynthese; directly usable, without any treatment, fact which is of exceptional importance for human metabolic deficiencies (Arnold, 1978; Battagliani et al, 1969. Bonagia, 1983 Andriţoiu, 2006);

- lipids : under the most diverse forms: fatty acids, glycerides, phosphooglicérides, sphyingolipides, steroids or compounds support the formation of lipids (including cholesterol, bile acids, terpenes, superior aliphatic acids, etc.), some lipids are offered as biomolecules directly usable by the body without any treatment; esters (Cotrutz et al, 2011;. Capolongo, 1997; Mateescu, 2005; Andriţoiu, 2006); the lipids are the master piece of plasmalemma, ensuring the its structural integrity. The lipids are also biochemical barrier that separates the extracellular space to the interior of the cell (Cotrutz et al, 2011.)

- carbohydrates directly assimilable: all those who have a role in cellular and extracellular level, including the ones to be found in the structure of glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans (Alphandéry 1989; Andriţoiu, 2004, 2005, 2006);

- vitamins: all which are known as such - can be used directly, but also all the precursor necessary substances for their biosynthese by the human body

(Crane, 1978; Gonnet et al, 1989; Andriţoiu, 2004, 2006);

- vitamin-like factors or substances that protrude in their structure: choline (an amine - C5H15O2N acting as vitamin), carnitine (also called vitamin T) myoinositol (considered a member of the vitamin B), ubiquinone (coenzyme acting as vitamins, the best known being the Coenzyme Q10: CaQ10) inclusively bioflavonoids playing the role of vitamin (such as flavanone, flavones, flavonols, etc. flavins.)

- insulin-like or insulin-like action factors : IGF-I, an insulin-like peptide, the B8, E, C; minerals Se, Zn, Vn, Cr, Ca, and proteins - albumin within ​homeostasyc values and so on;

- minerals: all known to play a role in human metabolism, as such, including the ionized ones, but also in the structure of certain biomolecules - metalloproteins, metalloenzymes, metallocorticodes, etc.. (Propolis, 1979 Alles et al, 1989;. Andriţoiu, 2006);

- enzymes and coenzymes as biomolecules directly usable and their precursors, too: the richness in enzymes of the honey bee products is certainly unsurpassed, as the enzymes identified only partially, amount to the number of 800 (Crane, 1978);

- antioxidants - all which are known in the medical sciences (Andriţoiu, 2006);

- organic acids: some are of exceptional importance in the treatment of cancers, including 10-hydroxy-2-decenoid or 9-hydroxy-decenoid, also the acids DNA and RNA;

- substances needed for human cells, the most of which can be used directly, regardless the metabolic status of each patient, starting with which falling in the primary structure of the human cell - C, H, O, N P (Gonnet et al 1989, Kimura et al, 2003; Nagaya et al, 2004, ... Andriţoiu, 2006);

- biomolecules directly usable by the human body, of a diversity and efficiency that should be the object of a broad level of studies, both basic and clinic. (Klein et al, 1969; Andriţoiu, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010.).

. * Advantages: the honey bee therapeutic products offer these items as directly usable salts  at the molecular / cell level.

* At the base of human cells structure are C, H, O, N, S, P

* The honey bee products provide all these elements.

* Bilipidic plasmatic membrane is composed of lipids, to which are added a rich load of molecules with different structures and roles.

* Sphyngosine and sphyngomyelin necessary for human myelin synthesis

* All these lipids such as or as biomolecules - are offered by the bees and they may be found in the structure of the honey bee therapeutic products (choline, phosphatidylcholine, serine, inositol, etc.).

* The sphyngosine and sphyngomyelin may be found in the honey bee products and honey bee therapeutic products as directly usable biomolecules, as well as their precursors.

* The structure of DNA and RNA is made up, apart of acids, of histone and non-histone proteins, phosphate compounds, inorganic compounds, small amounts of carbohydrates and lipids

* The same structure with some different genetic information, also have the nucleic acids of pollen, bee bread,  and bee and drones larvae cells .

* The honey bee therapeutic products include: 1) appreciable quantities of cell nuclei, 2) all substances falling within the structure of DNA and RNA.

* Cells and their organelles, eg. mitochondria and ribosomes, need ions, especially C2 + and Mg 2 +, which must be above par to phosphorus.

* In the honey bee products C2 + and Mg2 + are above par compared to P; the same ratio is maintained in the honey bee therapeutic products, too.

* Between peroxisome enzymes there is catalase.

* The catalase is an enzyme abundant in honey bee therapeutic products and it has a biochemical structure identical to the human one.

* Stem cells, progenitor of all human cells.

* The honey bee therapeutic stem cells are definitely ound in the structure of the honey bee therapeutic products.

* Collagen, other fibrillar proteins and proteases – colagenases including, are proper to human body.

* The collagen and other insoluble (fibrillar) proteins and also the amino-acids that are their precursors and collagenases enzymes shall be found in the honey bee therapeutic products.

* Human mast cells secrete heparin and histamine.

* Heparin and histamine are present in honey bee products and honey bee therapeutic products as biomolecules.

* Hyaluronic mucopolysaccharide acid found in the human body - and hyaluronidase.

* The honey bee products contain hyaluronic acid and hyaluronidase.

* Lipoproteins of human body.

* The lipoproteins are found in identical forms in honey bee products, and that is why we do not mention them any longer.

* Steroids, like the glucocorticoids present in the human body

* As substance, but also as biomolecules with an identical number of carbon atoms

-Estran C 18                Estrogens

-Androgens C19          Androstane

-Corticosteroids C21   Pregnana

* Human prostaglandins

* They have synthetizing sources in the honey bee products; e.g.: linoleic acid biomolecules for the synthesis of arachidonic acid.

* MMP (metalloproteinases) in human body

* They are found as such in the honey bee products, but also as biomolecules.

* There is a correlation between the enzymes of human body and the enzymes of honey bee products: oxidoreductases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.

* The honey bee products can be / are sources to restore the enzymatic deficits involved in many human diseases. In the honey bee products have been identified over 800 enzymes. The honey bee products offer inclusively precursor biomolecules of which the body can synthesize enzymes.

* Antioxidants present (or required) in the human body, as well as other substances with an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antitumor role and so on:

1) fulfill their own biological roles;

2) have the advantage of synergy presence

and action synergy, supporting and enhancing each other etc..

* The honey bee antioxidants are identical in number, biostructure and functions to the ones of the human body:

* SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione, vitamins A, C, E;

* Se, albumin, glucose, taurine, flavonoids, polyphenols, phytic acid, involved in redox.

* Vitamins involved in immunity A, D, E, B1, B2, B3, B6, B6, B8, B12, C

* Choline, Carnitine, myoinositol, ubiquinone;

* Ca, Mg, P, Na, Cl, K, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, I, Cr, Co, Mn, Se, Mo, Bo, Ni;

* Albumin: prohibits formation of 1O2

                   links / complexes with Fe, Cu.

* Phospholipase A, melittine.

* MCDP- peptide 100 times more inflammatory than cortisol.

* 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic: antitumour necrosis

* Taurine-amino acid: synergic with vit.C

*Bioflavonoids: chrysin, galangin, apigenin, isosakuronetin, betheolin, tectochrysin, pinocembrina etc.etc.

* CAPE, phenethyl ester of caffeic acid, etc.

* Glycoproteins, glycolipids, metallo-proteins, flavoproteins etc. of human body.

* Glycoproteins, glycolipids, metalloproteins, honey bee flavoproteins and so on, are identical in honey bee poducts and honey bee therapeutic products: as completely developed biomolecules, but also as precursor biomolecules, of which the body can synthesize them.

* To human hormones correspond

* Honey bee hormones as:

- biocompatible biomolecules directly bioavailable

   (somathormoni, somatostatin, estrogen, androgen)

- biomolecules of precursor substances of the  human hormones as pre-pro-hormones and pre-hormones necessary for their biosynthesis in the human body.

* Acids necessary for human body

* As biomolecules directly usable, but also:

- biomolecule precursors thereof;

- acids which cannot be be synthesized,10-hydroxy-2-decenoic (10HDA), anti-tumor, immunomodulatory etc.

* Gammaglobulin - detected by serum protein electrophoresis.

* Gammaglobulin – as directly usable biomolecules,

with important role in immunomodulation.

* Physiological gluconeogenesis implies the presence of enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase.

* Glucose-6-phosphatase: biomolecules directly usable; of great importance, especially in cases of insulin resistance.

* Factors insulin-like

* Vitamins: B8, E, C; minerals: Zn, Vn, Cr., insulin-like factors are mainly in pollen and royal jelly; albumin in physiological values​​, can play the same role.

* Albumin, the major protein of plasma / serum

* Albumin is found in honey bee products in  biological forms identical to the human ones, but as prealbumin. The honey bee therapeutic products also provides the amino-acids necessary for human  biosynthesis of thid protein of great importance.


(Adapted from: Caillas A., 1975 ; Greceanu A. et al., 1989; Andrițoiu V., 1995, 1999,2001, 2002, 2003,2004, 2005,2006, 2007, 2009, 2010; Andrițoiu C.V.  și Andrițoiu V., 2010; Terao J., 1999; MărgitașL.A., 1999;  2005; Mateescu C., 2005; Rusu I., 2007; Moldoveanu E. et al.,2001 etc.)

The table above may seem too long, too wide and possibly boring to go through. We do not want to contradict anyone. Across the table, however, is only a minimal sequence of the bee biomolecules, trying to provide, maybe it is a pale one, an idea about the biochemical complexity of the bee products.

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